I struggled to find PEM resources for my CT3 year, despite the variety of excellent resources out there. I hope this website will help point you in the right direction. I'm not a PEM expert, but am following the guidance CEM have issued (in the form of a syllabus) to put together this page. This page is not endorsed by CEM, and any mistakes are mine.

Please comment with corrections, additions and further suggestions.

All the information here is collected from the internet, and it might be out of date or inaccurate, so please use your judgement and adhere to your hospital's protocols. If you do notice any errors or omissions please comment so we can put them right!

To navigate, decide whether you want to start with a PMP or a PAP. You can then select which PMP or PAP you want to look at. You will then be taken to the summary page for that PMP, with links expanded topic collections. If you know what topic you want to look at already, click on the link on the right hand side.

Monday, 5 August 2013

Paediatric Resuscitation

Most people learn by doing, whether their "doing" is simulation, or real life. Given the thankful infrequency of paediatric arrests, we must rely on simulation. I would strongly recommend you practice paediatric resuscitation simulations, making them as realistic as possible, to supplement your theoretical knowledge. I've heard that one children's hospital runs a mock paediatric arrest weekly, and it is very helpful.

Course wise, either APLS or EPLS is accepted. Most people I've spoken to prefer the APLS course as they syllabus is broader. I've not done both of them so I can't comment, but I enjoyed my course.

American Heart BLS guidelines
American Heart ALS guidelines
American Heart ALS and BLS
American Heart Summary
Anaethetists Update
Resus Council Guidelines

This blog has a look at what goes wrong in a paediatric arrest. With a link to a formal study, they conclude that "issues regarding equipment familiarity/use/misuse, failure to check BSL, and drug errors. Calculations of drug doses were difficult under stress. Failure rates in some of these domains exceeded 50%.

Drug dosing is difficult. Multiple smart phone apps exist - I like PalmPedi, despite the American-ness (if you buy PalmPedi consider getting PalmEM - reviewed on LITFL instead, as PalmED encorporates PalmPedi). This Australian website is nice and clear. We'll blog about drugs later.

Word of mouth suggests that "WET FAG" is no longer used as an acronym, and "WET FLAG" is more common instead. I do try and memorise all of these doses, but do like to be able to swiftly check them. I do not trust my phone to have signal or battery, and other Clinicians are often busy - so I rely on paper versions instead.

Parents - in or out?  In my experience they want to be in, and it is useful to have someone explaining things to them. They don't alter efficacy of the resuscitation effort.

Paeds arrest in trauma? Survival rates aren't good.

And debriefing afterwards is good, even if the resus is successful. Remember to carefully document - especially as you may have caused rib fractures, which may be later attributed to non accidental injury.

The Algorithm
Apart from doses, the algorithm is pretty much the same as for adults with a few key differences:
 - Start with 5 initial rescue breaths
 - CPR ratio 15:2

There are plenty of similarities:
 - No atropine unless bradycardic
 - Sodium bicarbonate only recommended if prolonged arrest, or associated with hyperkalaemia or TCA overdose
 - Continuous compressions encouraged.
 - After ROSC, titrate oxygen to saturations


  1. St Emlyns has some good pages with resus comments:

    APLS Weight Estimation (The new numbers):

    What about the Parents:

  2. Rahul Goswami (@Rahul_Goswami_) tweeted at 2:37 AM on Sun, Apr 13, 2014:
    Colin Parker - Myths of paeds resus. #sems2014 http://t.co/QOGwtIP8fU

    Get the official Twitter app at https://twitter.com/download