I struggled to find PEM resources for my CT3 year, despite the variety of excellent resources out there. I hope this website will help point you in the right direction. I'm not a PEM expert, but am following the guidance CEM have issued (in the form of a syllabus) to put together this page. This page is not endorsed by CEM, and any mistakes are mine.

Please comment with corrections, additions and further suggestions.

All the information here is collected from the internet, and it might be out of date or inaccurate, so please use your judgement and adhere to your hospital's protocols. If you do notice any errors or omissions please comment so we can put them right!

To navigate, decide whether you want to start with a PMP or a PAP. You can then select which PMP or PAP you want to look at. You will then be taken to the summary page for that PMP, with links expanded topic collections. If you know what topic you want to look at already, click on the link on the right hand side.

Thursday, 1 May 2014

Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Up to 7% of girls and 2% of boys will have a symptomatic, culture confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI) by the age of six. The prevalence of UTI in febrile infants is approximately 7%. After a UTI, 10-30% of children have scarring

Clinical Features

Infants and children presenting with an unexplained fever of 38°C or higher, for over 24 hours, should have a urine sample tested. Infants and children with an alternative site of infection should not have a urine sample tested. When infants and children with an alternative site of infection remain unwell, urine testing should be considered after 24 hours at the latest.

How to test
Urgent microscopy and culture <3years old
>3 or no microscopy, dipstick testing may act as a substitute
Obtaining a Sample
Clean catch - less likely to be contaminated
Urine bags - useful to rule out, but not to rule in
Urine collection pads
Cotton wool balls, gauze and sanitary towels should not be used to collect urine in infants and children.

Upper urinary tract infection - oral antibiotics (cephalosporin or co-amoxiclav) for 7 - 10  days
Lower urinary tract infections - oral antibiotics for 3 days.

Follow Up




  1. Andrew Redfern (@PaedCapeTown) tweeted at 8:09 PM on Thu, May 08, 2014:
    Dipstick Screening for Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Infants. http://t.co/yIXkPvZsgF who screens 0-28d with dipstick only? #foamped

  2. Great article. Urinary Tract Infection is very common in women's. To cure it naturally with herbal dietary supplements for UTI.

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